More on Plot as the One Guiding Decision
A Continuation of the Previous Blog — which was shorter 😉 .

Detailed Look at the 7 Types of Plot

The title of this chapter in Think like a Pro is “One Guiding Decision :: Plot It”, and plot is truly the guiding decision for any writing.

While many plot structures abound (and several are discussed later in the Think/Pro chapter), it is the 7 Plot Types that will give the KEY that every writer needs to use to unlock story.

That KEY is coming, I promise, but first let’s look at the three required elements for each of the 7 Plot Types.

Continue reading “Think…Pro: 7 Types of Plot”

Writing Story: Tests

Tests.  Trials.  Tribulations.

In School

Tests determine what we know and don’t know and how well we are surviving a course.

90% level:  we’re great. 

75%:  hanging in there. 

60%:  barely getting by. 

35%:  Are we even trying?

Some students naturally excel, and don’t those of us who are struggling envy them?  Some students are distracted or unprepared.  Others seem blithe and carefree to hide their angst.

public domain image
How do we judge our work? Our life’s progress? Anything long-term when we see no immediate results? It’s not as easy as a scantron test.
In Life

Our tests in life are more intangible than 50 questions covering Rationalism.  Are we working well enough, creatively enough to earn that pay raise or promotion?  Have we met the clients’ expectations?  Did we play a hand in the healing?

We face trials with family and friendships, with finances and life spaces.  We face trials in the daily grind and the major passages of life.  And we face tribulations that scare us and scar us, that drive us to our knees and measure the mettle of our backbone.

Read that last sentence again.

We face tribulations that scare us

and scar us,

that drive us to our knees

and measure the mettle

of our backbone.

  • This sentence is the directive for our writing.

“But I don’t want to go among mad people,” said Alice.

“Oh, you can’t help that,” said the cat.  “We’re all mad here.”

~ Lewis Carroll


In the 12 stages of the Archetypal Story Pattern (ASP), we must remember that each stage is not a single scene with its seque to the next stage.

The Tests Stage is the clearest example of this.

The very name of the stage clues us in that we are dealing with a plural.  In the Tests, we “measure the mettle” of our protagonists as they encounter allies and enemies (the focus of our next blogs).

The greatest Tests in the ASP will not occur in this stage.  The Ordeal (Stage 8) is intended to be the moment of greatest difficulty for the protagonists.  Two remaining stages present the last, crucial challenges (10 and 11).

What, then, is the purpose of these Tests?  Training?  More sacrifices?  Or something even greater?

Initiation and Transformation

Tests, Allies, and Enemies falls as the 6th ASP Stage, 3rd of the Initiation and Transformation segment.

The Destruction of the Dear at the Call to Adventure propels the protagonist into the journey.  However, change does not occur at that point.

Change only occurs when people accept that they must adapt to a difference.  The protagonists enter the difference when they meet the mentor.

The Threshold Crossing causes the first adaptation by preventing an easy return to the Ordinary World.  From that stage onward, protagonists are on a journey they actively pursue and will not retreat from.

Thresholds are Tests

crossing the threshold means encountering such tests
Chinese temple fu dog, a terrifying guardian

What are the tests?  How do the protagonists overcome them?  Why are they placed in the protagonists’ way?

Each test has three parts.

  • The Threshold into the Test
  • The Encounter with the Threshold Guardian
  • Acknowledgement of the Lesson(s) of the Test

The Threshold is the Testing Gate, not a mere event to be overcome.  Each threshold should build suspense.

Now, I’m going to say something obvious.  Each testing gate has a path to it and from it.  Don’t skip over that.  We often skim the obvious and move on, not realizing its importance.  Our protagonists should not bounce from event to event.  Create a lead-up with its blindness or stress, the event, and a leaving with its new sight or relief.

The Lessons of the Test

Coming after the defeat of the guardian and before the next test’s gate appears is the protagonists’ acknowledgement of the test’s lesson.

When our protagonists reel from one event to the next, we remove the audience’s emotional connection to them.

The protagonist can refuse to acknowledge any lesson—which is itself a test to be overcome.

Without acknowledgement of a lesson, the protagonist remains static.  Protagonists should be dynamic—unless you are writing post-modern absurdism.

We can have our protagonists acknowledge that the path requires too much sacrifice and try to abandon the journey.  However, the journey should and will pull them back.  They can question and re-think approaches to their journey.

Look at what they have sacrificed, at their accumulating scars.  Is the journey worth it?  Is an easier path available?  Will the easier path lead to an equivalent or greater treasure at the end?

Yes.  No.  No.  These MUST be the answer to those three questions.

Our protagonists may not achieve their short-term goals without connections with allies and enemies, both secret and obvious.

How Many Tests?

Each lesson leads to knowledge necessary to overcome the Ordeal.

And this is the reason that writing is a recursive process.

We may set up all the tests that we think are necessary only to reach the Ordeal and realize additional knowledge is necessary.  Will that knowledge come from the mentor—to be followed or not—or from the tests with their lessons?

Or we may reach the Ordeal and realize some of our tests are superfluous.

Add or cut, as necessary.

Every scene in a story must have a purpose.  Every test must have a purpose.  Like puzzle pieces, tests should foreshadow the Ordeal.

One of the first great tests for the fellowship
A threshold that foreshadows: Moria in Tolkien’s first book of his great trilogy

In Tolkien’s Fellowship of the Ring, the great battle against the orcs and goblins in the Mines of Moria foreshadows the huge battle of the Pelennor Fields at the foundations of Minas Tirith near the end of The Return of the King.

The lessons Aren learns from the Hob about taking pieces of power from the various magical creatures helps her to understand how to defeat the corrupt mage at the end of Patricia Briggs’ The Hob’s Bargain.

Understanding that love is more enduring and powerful than station or wealth helps Darcy decide to cleave to Elizabeth, no matter his feelings about her family in Jane Austen’s Pride and Prejudice.

Tests link the several stages of the ASP.  They can hark back to the Call2Adventure, the Refusal of the Call, and Crossing the 1st Threshold.  They are part of the run-up to the all-powerful Ordeal, yet they also touch fingers to the Road Back and the Resurrection of the Evil.

Coming Up

10 types of Allies and Enemies fill the arenas of the Tests.

Catwoman is Batman's greatest test
Love Interest Catwoman toying with Batman

Kick back in August as we explore all 10 of the Allies.  It will be September 10 for the Enemies.

  • Threshold Guardian
  • Ally
  • Foil
  • w/ a special word on the Love Interest
  • Herald
  • Blocking Figure
  • Idol
  • Trickster
  • Shapeshifter
  • Villain
  • Shadow

Writing Story: Destroy the Dear

The Call to Adventure


The rain it raineth on the just

But also on the unjust fellow;

But chiefly on the just because

The unjust stole the just’s umbrella.

~ Charles Bowen, Lord Bowen

Second Stage of Story is the Call to Adventure, our C2A.  In this Stage, we writers get to be cruel.  We are going to sacrifice, as mercilessly as possible, the cherished thing.

We are going to Destroy the Dear that the protagonist clings to.

That Dear can be a person, place, thing, object, or idea.

Starting the Story

For the destruction, we already know who and what, by whose aid, why and how, and when and where. We mapped this information before we wrote the Ordinary World (OW).

Now all we need to do is write it, right?

Not quite.

We do have the bulk of our work done.  A couple of other considerations still dangle before us.

1st Look at the C2A

The protagonist is reactive in the C2A.  The contented existence of the OW is being destroyed in the C2A.  The protagonist has no control in this stage.

We can increase the angst for our primary characters when we give the protagonist a small measure of control then take it away.

The angst increases when that tiny ounce of control is protecting the dear thing.  If the protagonist protected the dear, thought it was safe while s/he went to protect some other thing (or went to confront the antagonist), and then we writers destroy the dear, the angst triples in shock value.

Airplane travel
Can we leave? Can we leave? Get outta the way!

No one likes to lose control.  Most people’s difficulties with flying arise from that loss of control.  We can control nothing on an airplane:  not boarding, not seating, not stowing our carry-ons, not our checked baggage, not encounters with our fellow travelers, not the AC or the heat, not the filtering of the air, not the cleanliness of our seats or blankets or dining tray, not take off, and not landing.  And certainly not debarking.

The protagonist’s loss of control could be emotional.  It has more impact on the audience when s/he avoids hysterics and only loses physical control (environment, safety) or intellectual ability to choose, ability to act, and ability to concentrate.

2nd of the C2A

Maslow’s Hierarchy of Needs ranks our functioning levels.

Consider Maslow’s Hierarchy of Needs.

On which of the five levels does the protagonist land while in the OW Stage?  Most of us operate at Esteem or Love.  These are most important.  Few people ever achieve Altruism (self-actualization).

When we destroy the dear, the protagonist will drop down to a lower rung.

Let’s Take Taken.

Taken presents a near-perfect C2A.

For the OW, the protagonist is with his daughter, his cherished dear.

We see his relationship with her, an atypical view of a father not giving his daughter the best gift.  We see his allies and his all-important “skill-set”, and we see how his attempt to control the safety of his daughter is undermined by his ex-wife.

While he manages to maintain a modicum of control, it is further undermined when he realizes his ex-wife and daughter have lied to him about the daughter’s trip:  the daughter and her friend will be in multiple cities, not just one.

All this is Ordinary World.

In the C2A, the antagonist is already in motion.  This Stage starts innocently enough with a phone call.

Then the true antagonists arrive.  First we see the danger to the friend, reported by the daughter to the protagonist.  He knows no secure place is available, so he directs his daughter to give him the evidence needed to track the abductors.

For a brief moment, we the audience are fooled that safety may occur.  Then our willful—& wanting and praying—blindness is ripped away.

Taken 2008
The cherished dear is threatened . . . Taken 2008

The protagonist’s negotiation with the abductor restores a semblance of control—but it is only a semblance.  He is thousands of miles away.  He has very little evidence to work with.  As a final affront, the antagonist crushes the daughter’s cell phone under his heel.

From the Esteem level, our protagonist drops down to Safety Concerns for his daughter.

As the story rolls, he does drop further to Survival, briefly.  By the end, he is back to Intrinsic Esteem.  The transformation needed was not his but his daughter’s and his ex-wife’s, to value what they had previously despised.

The Destruction of his Dear is never achieved (although we see several mirrors of it).  It does come so close that the audience’s adrenaline shoots up and never really drops down until the very end.

Three More Takes on Dear Destruction


Dean Koontz does the same thing in his 2005 Velocity, pitting a young woman against a twisted serial killer.  Once the C2A occurs, the reader is on a plummeting ride.

Our protagonist holds her friend’s life dear.  When she realizes the friend’s family is dead, she braves herself  to climb into the killer’s RV to save her friend.  Unfortunately, her own safety is destroyed when she is trapped.

The action-adventure genre provides the clearest reading of the 12 Stages of the Hero’s 

Persuasion, 2007: Rupert Penry Jones & Sally Hawkins at odds

Journey.  However, virtually every story follows this archetypal structure.


In Jane Austen’s Persuasion, the dear was sacrificed long before the start of the story.  It is the return of the dear that presents the C2A, as well as the obstacle that will have the re-acquisition of the dear become nearly impossible.

The loss of Captain (Lt.) Frederick Wentworth left Anne Elliott shattered.  She has rebuilt the semblance of an existence (for she is not living).  When she re-encounters Frederick, she must clutch a chair to stay upright.  Her unexpressed pain is so great even her self-absorbed sister notices Anne’s pallor before her egocentrism re-centers itself.


Shakespeare’s Macbeth holds the kingship as the dear thing.  To achieve it, Macbeth must sacrifice his honor and accept kin-killing and king-killing, all in Act I.  Here is something he has always wanted.  Macbeth is a better warrior than his cousin.  He knows that he has the respect of other thanes and fighters.  He saved the battle for his cousin the king.  Only a sequence of birth prevented the crown from coming to him.

Act II concerns his refusal of the C2A.  We learn the importance of Lady Macbeth in pushing her husband to commit murder.  We see her control over his physical and emotional desires.  And we see the commission of three murders, one of them “perfect”, for without Macbeth’s continued evil in Act III, no one would have had any suspicion that he had killed his cousin the king who was staying as a guest in his house.

Reap the Rewards of Destruction

We writers need to set up the emotional connection of the protagonist to the Dear in the OW.  In the C2A, we must remove the protagonist’s control and have her/him too shocked to do more than react.

Then we must hurt our darlings.  Never hesitate to the Destroy the Dear.

Our readers will thank us.

Join us for the next Stage of the Hero’s Journey on the 10th of June.  On the 1st of each month, Writers Ink will have a promotion for a book by one of a W.INK writers.

~ M. A. Lee

Best Scene
Persuasion, 1995, with Ciaran Hinds and Amanda Root. The Preferred Version

Last but not Least

the 4 Archetypes who Complete Jung’s 12

The Everyman.  The Lover.  The Innocent.  The Trickster.  Last but not least, these four characters provide rich ground for story beyond the same-old same-old.

Of these four, only the last seems to have any potential as a story’s protagonist.  They would seem to be the last choices.  Yet when we examine them more closely, we discover that they may be last but not the least in that selection.

In these unexpected protagonists lie the truth of life.  Never forget Jane Austen :: 

Jane Austen can get more drama out of morality than most other writers can get from shipwreck, battle, murder, or mayhem.  ~ Robert Blythe

The Everyman

Jung calls this archetype the Orphan.  Everyman is the modern take on the term.

The Everyman fits in with everyone.  S/He (Always remember that the archetypes can be viewed from either gender.) is a good friend to all.  With “street smarts” gained over time, s/he is very aware of how people and society work, even if s/he never lived “on the streets”.

Like George Bailey in It’s a Wonderful Life, the Everyman comes wired to understand the hidden networking.  S/He thrives through understanding the interconnections within any social system.

The Everyman’s Downfall

The Everyman can stumble into irresponsibility.  Understanding the interconnections,

It's a Wonderful Life
George Bailey on the Bridge

s/he can find ways to slip away from obligations.  Everybody’s friend can actually be no one’s friend as s/he plays upon friendship to “pass the buck”.

Look at George Bailey’s uncle:  the perfect example of the irresponsible Everyman.

And George himself provides us with the Everyman as victim, especially when he stands on the bridge and contemplates abandoning his obligations through suicide. 

The Everyman can also turn into the victim: “oh poor me.  What a poor life I’ve had.”  In controlling the networks, s/he can manipulate others into co-dependency.

Yet when the Everyman takes control of his story, when he rejects the victim and becomes the leader, everyone benefits, everyone is enriched, from story characters to the readers.

The Lover

The Lover archetype is driven to bond.  Familial, relational, social, physical, spiritual:  no matter the type of bond, the Lover will seek intimacy.  In doing so, s/he may leap over the walls that some people have, enforcing friendship too soon.

The Lover wants that zing of love.  Like Gary Oldman’s Dracula who is driven to bond with Mina, the blood connections drive him.  He is the top predator building his pack, ruling them with a velvet-gloved hand.

S/he needs the constant sustenance of the relationship.  Without it, the Lover will feel abandoned.

However, the Lover is capable of great sacrifice to keep the loved ones safe.

One Side of the Lover’s Downfall

Heathcliff has an instant and soul-deep connection with Cathy of the first generation.  Denied the closer bond of sex, he turns on those he believes interfered, and the Cathy of the second generation suffers from his revenge.

Heathcliff provides the example of the self-impetus that destroys this character.  In this

Heathcliff, obsessed and manipulative, trying to control Cathy

respect, he is last but not least, for he drives his belief that he was “last selected” to punish everyone he believes de-valued him.

  • First, he jumped to the conclusion that he would be denied the bond he sought.
  • Second, his love turned to obsession. In this respect, he takes on the Stalker Mentality:
    • Controlling and manipulative
    • Focused on self needs rather than love for the other.
  • Once the obsession is in place, he cannot release it. To abandon the obsession is to destroy the connective bond.
The Other Side of the Lover’s Downfall

The Lover can mistake that connective bond as copulation.  Rushing too quickly into relationships, the Lover risks getting burned.  Or the sustaining family bond could have failed, leaving the Lover crippled in how to build and maintain a relationship.

This archetype may mistake physical intimacy for relationship intimacy.  The Lover then becomes the bed-hopping siren or seducer.  Obsessed with the high of attraction and sex, s/he will be unable or unwilling to analyze the reason no deep connection ever occurs.

Worse, the crippled Lover may only objectify the other person.

The Innocent

The idealistic Innocent is often a trusting optimist.

We need Innocents in our lives.  They look forward with hope.  They see the potential for sunny skies when all around them are storms.  While some of us slog through the rain, they’re singing and dancing in it.

That can be very frustrating.

However, their bright shiny helps us see the end.  They spot the rainbow first because they are always looking for it.

Sam Gamgee in the Lord of the Rings trilogy keeps Frodo on the trail, even to the point of carrying Frodo when he can go no farther.  He has bought into the mission, and he sees the possibility of success.

Rue in The Hunger Games and Forrest Gump are two more examples of the Innocent.  They may be considered last, but their influence is certainly not the least, giving hope when all hope is dissipated.

The Innocent’s Downfall

The blind cannot lead the blind.  When the Innocent loses touch with the stone-hard reality of a truly impossible situation, s/he will refuse to acknowledge the truth.  S/he will have great capacity for self-denial.

Those who trust too much are easily burned.  Those who are burned too much become ashy cynics, burning everyone else.

The Innocent who comes through the fire, properly valuing the miracle of love and community, that is a true hero, definitely last but not least.

The Trickster / Fool

Many teen-agers think they are Tricksters because they like to play tricks.  All they want is to have fun, which is the Fool’s defining trait.

Many writers mistake the Trickster as a prankster of evil intent.  This is not truly the definition of a Trickster.

Coyote of Native American myth never cared about the consequences of his actions because he never considered them.  He thought it was enough that he was “acting” and having a good time.

Getting joy out of life should be the goal of all of us, but we need to temper it with good sense, something the Trickster may claim to have done as everything crashes down.  However, the Trickster merely considered the best outcome of the prank, not all the outcomes of the prank.

Alex Foley in Beverly Hills Cop is the perfect example of a Trickster. He appears to have no better sense, but he has a wily innate cleverness, much as Odysseus eventually gains.  Alex Foley is the best example of the Trickster.

Click here to see a trailer of this classic 1980s flick.

Capt. Jack Sparrow in Pirates of the Caribbean, however, is the classic Fool.  Sparrow spots something to do, sees how it will work out if everything works out, and heads straight into the event.  He is gifted with the god’s own luck;  nothing will always work out for the best.  Disney has weakened this character by always providing a deus ex machina.  

The Trickster’s Downfall is to Become a Fool
Illustration by Henry Justice Ford
Odysseus Kills the Suitors

Too obsessed with cleverness, the Trickster will constantly upend things just to have done so.  When the consequences to others are not be considered, s/he becomes the self-absorbed Fool.

The Drunken Fool is another downfall of this archetype.  Seeking a good time, s/he can become addicted to alcohol or caffeine, sugar or drugs, video gaming or adrenal rushes, anything to give a sustained high.  The dark side devolves to gluttony, ruled by temporary satisfiers like food or liquor or cocaine, high speed or pranks or petty vandalism.

If the Fool never suffers consequences (just like teenagers), s/he will spiral down to greater problems.

Odysseus—after foolishly announcing himself to the blinded cyclops—eventually learns to control his Trickster side.  He begins to use it cleverly, such as his trickery against the suitors who had overrun his home.

However, not telling his long-suffering wife of his return—that is classic Fool behavior.

Next Up

These Last but not Least four archetypes complete our survey of Jung’s 12 characters.

In the next blog, we start a closer examination of the 12 Stages of the Archetypal Story Pattern, launching with the importance of the Ordinary World.

Join us on the 10th and 20th of every month as we examine the classic Story Arc that should guide all plotting.

~~ M. A. Lee